Luminosity Mask Done Right! 30 November 2018

Luminosity Mask 002

In our previous post Luminosity Mask - How Does It (Really) Work? we explained the theory behind Luminosity Mask.
The theory basically sums to the fact that Luminosity Mask is a remapping of values of a Graysacle image.

In this post, as promised at the end of previous post, we will explore what happens behind Photoshop based Luminosity Mask generators.
We will see that utilizing Photoshop’s engine to create Luminosity Masks in the methods used by most create some artifact we better avoid.
In order to show how to avoid them we’ll suggest an idea and an implementation in the form of a Photoshop Plug In named - Fixel Zone Selector.

We will also talk about the trade off in the essence of each Luminosity Mask creation - Smooth vs. Narrow (Focused).

Arrangements

Reference Image

This posts will include many hands on tests in Photoshop.
Hence a Reference Image is needed (Feel free to download it and replicate the tests and analysis).

The synthetic image above is a perfect Grayscale Gradient of 8 Bit Image created programmatically.
It contains all values {0, 1, 2, …, 254, 255}. The red box contains the line which will be processed as one dimensional function.
This will assist us analyze what happens exactly on every single Photoshop operation done since all operations are Pixel Wise.

We will also use a “Real World” image to display results. We’ll use the same image from previous post.

Simple Living

Grayscale and Color Modes Gamma Settings in Photoshop

There is one tricky thing to take into account when working with Photoshop on Masks and Channels.
Masks and Channels are considered to be “Grayscale” image in Photoshop.
Since the creation of Lumionsoity Masks involves manipulating (Doing Math on) Channels / Masks the Color Profile matters.

In our post, for simplification, we’ll use the sRGB color profile for all RGB images.
Yet we expect Grayscale image in RGB (3 Channels which are identical since the image is Graysacle) to match Grayscale (Single Channel) version of it.
Hence one must synchronize the Grayscale Color Profile of RGB images and Grayscale Images in Photoshop.



The suggested matching is given by:


RGB Space Gray Space Gamma
sRGB sGray sRGB Gamma Curve
Adobe RGB Gray Gamma 2.2 2.2
ProPhoto RGB Gray Gamma 1.8 1.8


Since for this demonstration we use sRGB we configured Grayscale Color Space to sGray Color Mode.
We won’t get into too much details, yet this is a crucial step and any one not doing it creates miss match in the Math employed.
This is one of the artifact some of the current generators of Luminosity Masks ignore which means their Math in the Channels tab doesn’t match the properties of the RGB image.

Remark Basically one need to match the Gamma Function employed on the RGB images to the one used for Grayscale Images.
For the above we chose the sRGB Gamma Correction (By selecting sGray), those who use Adobe RGB should use Gray Gamma 2.2 for Grayscale and for ProPhoto RGB one should use Gray Gamma 1.8 for Grayscale to match the functions.

In order to show the effect of this Gamma Function applied we used our reference image.
We loaded it into Photoshop and converted it into Grayscale image using Image -> Mode -> Grayscale.
We did it once with the Default setting and the other time with the sGray settings.
We saved the output image and analyzed the result.

In the figure above one could see the effect of setting incompatible color profile. The values are altered without any intention of the user. To understand this flaw in the context of Luminosity Mask it means that the mask is not aligned with the intention of the user. The Highlights mask for example has lower values than expected (200 is mapped to ~180 instead of 200).

The Classic Luminosity Masks

Luminosity Masks are generated, usually, using Channel Operations. There are 3 main operations: Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication (Intersection).


Operation Keyboard Shortcut Remarks
Activate Selection from Channel Ctrl + Left Mouse Click on channel to activate channel from Activate selection by pixels value of the channel
Add to Current Active Selection Hold Ctrl + Shift and Left Mouse Click on the channel to add Effectively adds the 2 channels
Subtract from Current Active Selection Hold Ctrl + Alt and Left Mouse Click on the channel to subtract Effectively subtract the 2 channels
Multiply Current Active Selection Hold Ctrl + Alt + Shift and Left Mouse Click on the channel to Multiply by Effectively multiply the 2 channels


In the process of making this post we downloaded the free offerings of all 3 major Luminosity Mask panels.
After evaluating their results few notes:

  1. All of them used the Luminosity Channel (Ctrl + Right Click on RGB Channel in Channels Tab) as base for the Luminosity Mask generation.
  2. All of them generated the exact same result as described in Luminosity Mask KickStarter Guide. For clarity we’ll use the notations of Light00#, Mid00# and Dark00# to refer to the # Highlights / Midtones / Shadows Luminosity Mask.
  3. None of them tried or suggested to align the RGB Color Space to Grayscale prior to Luminosity Mask generation.

The above means that in case the user didn’t align the color space the Math operations used by the generators are flawed. Namely the Grayscale image used for calculations isn’t the Luminosity Mask but one with different Gamma Function applied on.

Flawed Math

Even assuming the user (Or the Luminosity Mask generator used) aligned the Color Space between the RGB Color Space and Grayscale Color Space we will show the Math of Luminosity Mask in Photoshop is flawed.
In the previous post we mentioned a small teaser - How come the Math of the Midtones suggest that Mid001 should be all black (All values are zero) while Mask Generators generates Mid001 which is clearly not all black.

Let’s go through the process of generating Light001, Dark001 and Mid001 on the reference image:

  1. Load the reference image into Photoshop.
  2. Move into the Channels tab in Photoshop.
  3. Use Ctrl + Left Mouse Click on the RGB Channel to activate Luminosity Selection. Create new channel using selection by Select -> Save Selection (Or the small icon at the bottom Save Selection as Channel). Call this channel Light001. Since the reference image is Grayscale the Luminosity Channel is exactly it (Assuming matching RGB and Grayscale Color Space). Namely $ f \left( x \right) = x $.
  4. Clear selection by Select -> Deselect (Or Ctrl + D).
  5. Duplicate the channel Light001 (Right Mouse Click) and name the new channel as Dark001. Make it the active channel and click Ctrl + I (Invert layer / channel). This applies $ f \left( x \right) = 255 - x $. Namely it will create a reversed gradient image.
  6. Activate the RGB channel (By clicking on it) and Select All by Select -> All (Or by Ctrl + A). This create in background a Mask of Select All (All White - 255).
  7. Subtract the Light001 Channel by holding Ctrl + Alt and clicking on the Light001 channel. This will subtract from the Select All (All white) selection the Highlights Selection. Namely $ f \left( x \right) = 255 - x $. Yes, indeed this should be the Dark001, we’ll see in a second about that.
  8. Subtract the Dark001 Channel by holding Ctrl + Alt and clicking on the Dark001 channel. Photoshop might alert you that no selection with more than 50% was made. Now, let’s see what we expect - $ f \left( x \right) = 255 - x - (255 - x) $ this should be 0.
  9. Save selection into new channel as in Step 3 and name it Mid001. Is it pure black?

The is a replication of the guide or video.
Yet, unlike the Math, the result isn’t 0, so what’s going on?

Let’s go through this again. In the figure above one could see the result using Photoshop and using programming of the results. It seems that both Photoshop and the programming calculation agree on the first 2 steps (Hence the lines hide each other on the last row for the two left plots) yet the end result is different. The programming result says, as Math, that the output of Mid001 should be all black (Zero) yet Photoshop’s result isn’t zero (For those who are curious, we’ll solve what happens later on, as a teaser, this is a multiplication, not a subtraction).

Results for Color Space Miss Match

We did the same experiment yet while the Gray Color Space of Photoshop is set to Dot Gain 20%.

As one could see, even the inversion of the channel created differences in the result which gets worse with each additional Math operation.
This can be shown in the generation of the Midtone Mask (Mid001) which is not only different from black but shifted and not centered.

What Does Photoshop Actually Do?

You ask what Photoshop does? Multiplication…
Yes, Mid001 equals to the Multiplication (Intersection) of Light001 and Dark001.
We can see it by generating Mid001 from the intersection of Light001 and Dark001:

  1. Activate selection of Light001 by Ctrl + Left Mouse Click on Light001 Channel created earlier.
  2. While holding Ctrl + Alt + Shift apply Left Mouse Click on Dark001.
  3. Save selection to a new channel.

The above is exactly the Mid001 Mask created before.
So basically when we subtracted 2 selections from the Select All selection what really happened is the we got the intersection of the 2.
The funny things is that for other cases with levels 002 it doesn’t hold. How come Photoshop do that? Well, only Adobe knows.

Comparison of Luminosity Masks

This section compares of of the most popular Luminosity Masks Generator vs. Theory (Fixel).

Grayscale Color Space - Dot Gain 20%

This section shows results when Photoshop is using its default settings (Grayscale Color Space - Dot Gain 20%) as we assume this is what most users will encounter:

In the figure above one could see 2 phenomenons:

  1. The use of the invalid color profile (Dot Gain 20%) create shifting of the mask.
  2. The tonal curve created in Photoshop isn’t as smooth as theory and contains some rough edges due to quantization.

Grayscale Color Space - sGray

This section shows results when Photoshop is configured correctly.

While setting the correct Color Profile, as can be seen in the figure above, fixes the Tonal Shift the non smooth curves remains as a limitation of using Photoshop’s Channel Calculations.
Those artifacts can and should be avoided using better Math Engine then Photoshop’s Channel operations which are the limitation of the Masks Generated by tools in the market.
Another thing is that Phtooshop doesn’t stick to the Math. Namely even intersection of a mask with itself doesn’t yield the correct values of multiplication.

Suggested Solution

Well, solution is simple, use the image itself as basis to the Math manipulations.
One way to achieve that is using the correct Color Space and then use different tools in Photoshop such as Curves (Which has other limitations).
Another approach is to have a different Math Engine for those calculations and this can be achieved using Plug In’s.

Plug In Capabilities

Plug In can also suggest capabilities which are very hard to replicate using Channel Operation.
Let’s say the user want to select specific tonal range?
Most tools out there allow doing so implicitly by Addition / Subtraction of the given predefined masks.
Plug In solution can generate the required result explicitly.
For instance, the following can be easily achieved using Fixel Zone Selector:

As one could see in the figure above, Fixel Zone Selector can generate Luminosity Masks which are arbitrary to the user will while being:

  • Focused - Can target specific luminosity level.
  • Smooth - The curve is smooth (Using 32 Bit Float calculations regardless of the image) with no quantization error.
  • Direct - Works directly on the image without overhead of calculations or sensitivity to the Gray Scale Color Profile of Photoshop.

Namely, Fixel Zone Selector, by utilizing its own Luminosity Mask Generator, can overcome all issues mentioned above in Photoshop.
Since it has a simple, intuitive, yet powerful UI, the user can have an effective tool to totally control the Luminosity Mask generation process.

Summary

In this analysis we have shown the issues with the current Luminosity Masks generators on the market which uses Channels Operations (Which are most of them if not all).
Some of those are related to the Color Profile Settings in Photoshop and hence can be eliminated using the correct configuration.
Yet, even with the correct

Remark
We used free Panels / Scripts by major vendors as of April 2018.

Image Credit

Resources

Key Words: Fixel Algorithms, Fixel, Fixel Zone Selector, Luminosity Mask, Luminosity Masks, Saturation Mask, Saturation Masks, Curves, Levels, Luminosity, Photoshop, Plug In.

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